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JANUARY 2018 |  VOLUME 20 (1) | 


Table of Content


Beekeeping practices in four districts of tigray region, Northern Ethiopia

Gebregiorgis A. G. Berihu G., Tsegay T. G. Niraj K. Abrha B. H.

pp 1-10

Abstract
A survey was carried out on beekeeping practices in four districts (Degua-Timben, Hawzen, Saesiea-Tsaeda-Emba and Atsib-Wemberta) of Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia. Data were obtained from 164 beekeepers by using pre-tested, structured questionnaire on demographic characteristics and honey production practices. Beekeeping was dominated by male (91.46%). Higher proportion (56.71%) of the respondents used traditional hive, while 22.56% worked with modern hive only and 20.73% were practicing both. The overall average number of traditional and modern hives per respondent in the study area was 7.45 and 3.20, respectively. Majority (76.22%) of the respondents practiced supplementary feeding of bee colonies, with 72.56% who fed bees in March to May. Annual honey production per traditional hive was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Saesiea-Tsaeda-Emba (11.42±1.77 kg), Atsib-Wemberta (10.55±0.84 kg) and Hawzen (10.15±1.36 kg) than what was realized in Degua-Timben (7.88±1.40 kg), while honey production per modern hive was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Atsib-Wemberta (35.33±2.20 kg) and Hawzen (33.05±1.94 kg) districts than what was realized in Saesiea-Tsaeda-Emba (23.22±1.81 kg). The overall production of honey per hive (modern and traditional) was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Atsib-Wemberta (23.69±2.22 kg) and Hawzen (22.34±2.89 kg) districts than Saesiea-Tsaeda-Emba (14.56±2.12 kg).

Gebregiorgis A. G. Berihu G., Tsegay T. G. Niraj K. Abrha B. H.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia

Corresponding Author: nirajjha1925@yahoo.com

Target audience: Ministry of Agriculture, Researchers, Apiculture Professionals


Morphometric Attributes and Differentiation of Selected Indigenous Cattle Breeds in Nigeria

*Oladepo, A. D. Ogunsipe, M. H. Ayoola M. A. Balogun, K. B.

pp 11-16

Abstract
Population differentiation of farm animals is used for objective choice of parental genotypes that constitutes new hybrids in crossbreeding. In Nigeria, population characteristics of selected indigenous cattle breeds have not been fully documented. Therefore, morphometric attributes of selected indigenous cattle breeds in Nigeria were assessed. Three hundred and one (301) White Fulani (WF), 242 Red Bororo (RB), 247 Sokoto Gudali (SG), 233 Bornu Kuri (BK) and 184 Muturu cattle in the age group of 3 to 31/2 years were purposively sampled from Gombe, Kaduna, Niger and Ogun States. Eighteen (18) morphometric parameters were measured using standard procedures. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, cluster analysis and Euclidean genetic distance. The EL (cm) for WF (23.86±3.08), SG (24.17±3.82), RB (24.07±3.74) and BK (24.17±3.15) were significantly higher than that of Muturu (14.62±2.01). The Foreleg length (FLL) and tail length (TL) of WF, SG, RB and BK were significantly longer than that of Muturu. Muturu has a significantly shorter TL than WF, SG, RB and BK. The longest genetic distance at the morphometric level was 146 between Muturu and BK and shortest (44) between BK and RB. Differences existed in face length, rear leg length, wither height and rump height of the various breeds of cattle.

Keywords: Breed differentiation, Genetic distance; Indigenous cattle, Morphometric attributes.

*Oladepo, A. D. Ogunsipe, M. H. Ayoola M. A. Balogun, K. B.

Animal Production Unit, Department of Agricultural Science, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: boladepo@yahoo.com; Tel: +234-703-2502-604

Target Audience: Academic Researchers, Cattle Farmers, Animal Breeders and Geneticists


Influence of genotype on post-weaning growth performance of domestic rabbits

*Mallam, I., Kabir, M. Nwagu, B.I., Achi, N.P. Achi, J.N. Alao, R.O John, P.A.

pp 17-25

Abstract
Data on 48 weaned New Zealand White (NZ), Chinchilla (CH) and Dutch (DU) breeds of rabbits and their crosses obtained from 6 to 14 weeks were used for this study. The genotypes were New Zealand White × New Zealand White (NZ×NZ), Chinchilla×Chinchilla (CH×CH), Dutch×Dutch (DU×DU), New Zealand White × Chinchilla (NZ×CH), New Zealand White × Dutch (NZ×DU) and Chinchilla × Dutch (CH×DU). Traits studied were body weight (BW), body length (BL), chest girth (CG), head-to-shoulder (HS), shoulder-to-tail drop (ST), length of hind leg (LHL), ear length (EL) and, height at withers (HTW). There were significant (P<0.05) differences among the genotypes at different ages. CH×CH was superior over other genotypes for most of the post-weaning growth traits studied at different ages (480.0g, 650.0g, 941.3g, 1206.0g and 1401.8g mean body weights at week 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14, respectively). This was followed by CH×DU (476.3g, 601.3g, 751.0g, 910.0g and 1086.3g for the same parameters. The results indicated that CH×CH and CH×DU genotypes could be most suitable for optimum genetic improvement. It can be concluded that CH×CH genotype performed better in most of the post-weaning growth traits. Therefore, CH×CH is recommended for higher body weight and linear body measurement after weaning.

Keywords: Genotype, Post-weaning, Growth performance, Domestic rabbits

*Mallam, I., Kabir, M. Nwagu, B.I., Achi, N.P. Achi, J.N. Alao, R.O John, P.A.

  • Department of Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
  • National Animal Production Research Institute/Ahmadu Bello University, Shika-Zaria.

*Corresponding Author: mallamiliya2011@gmail.com. Phone no. +2348188146452

Target Audience: Animal breeders/Scientists, Rabbit farmers.


Relationships among egg quality traits in Japanese quails over three generations of selection for egg production

Abbaya, H. Y. Akpa, G. N. Adedibu, I. I. Attah, E. O.

pp 26-33

Abstract
The study was carried out to evaluate the relationships among egg quality traits over three generations of selection for egg production. Eggs were obtained at the 9th week from 300, 450 and 320 adult quails in Generation zero (G0), one (G1) and two (G2), respectively. There were significant (p<0.05-0.01) positive and negative correlations among egg quality traits as generation of selection increased. The high positive relationships between egg weight and shell weight, shell thickness and albumen weight could be maximized in designing a selection program for egg quality traits in quails.

Key words: Egg, quality, Relationships, Generation, Selection, and Quail.

Abbaya, H. Y. Akpa, G. N. Adedibu, I. I. Attah, E. O.

Department of Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

Corresponding author: abbaya177@gmail.com

Target Audience: Breeders, Farmers, Food processors


Sire influence on reproductive, performance characteristics and growth traits in three strains of Japanese quail raised in the humid tropics

Obi, O.C. Obike, O.M. *Onunkwo, D.N. Nosike, R.J. Ogbuagu, K. P. Oke, U.K. Orji, A.C.

pp 34-41

Abstract
A total of 270 pedigreed-hatched day old chicks of three strains of Japanese quail generated from a base population of 45 adult Japanese quails were used to estimate the influence of sire on the hatchability and growth performance of the birds. Japanese quail strains used were Cinnamon Brown x Cinnamon Brown (CBxCB), Panda White x Cinnamon Brown (PWxCB) and Silver Brown x Cinnamon Brown (SBxCB). The experiment was a randomized complete block design. Parameters measured include: fertility and hatchability traits, growth performance traits and linear body parameters. The results showed that, average percentage range of fertility (71.64-75.76 %), hatchability (50.08-57.17%), dead in germ (55.00-69.08%), dead in shell (11.20-18.225%) were significantly (P <0.05) better in Pander White (PW) sired progeny while number piped (13.06-20.11 %), brooding (3.00-4.6 %) and rearing (1.00-1.33 %) mortalities showed no significant difference (P>0.05) among the three sired progeny. The work also revealed that final body weight (153.79-159.78 g), daily weight gain (2.10- 2.19 g), daily feed intake (24.59-25.48 g), and feed conversion ratio (11.65-11.93) showed no significant difference (P>0.05) among the three sired progeny. The lower feed intake obtained in this experiment suggests that the feed given to these birds were able to meet up their dietary energy requirement. Panda White sired progeny gave the best feed conversion ratio. For the linear body parameters, PWxCB strain had higher thigh length (4.76 cm), breast width (7.44 cm), body length (12.09 cm), keel length (6.79 cm), and shank length (3.34 cm). The results indicate that Panda White sired progeny should be selected for better hatchability and growth performance for enhanced breeding program in the study area.

Keywords: Sire, reproduction, hatchability, morphometric traits, growth performance


Obi, O.C. Obike, O.M. *Onunkwo, D.N. Nosike, R.J. Ogbuagu, K. P. Oke, U.K. Orji, A.C.

  • College of Animal Science and Animal Production
  • Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Nigeria.

*Corresponding Author: donunkwo1@gmail.com


Characterization of the Nigerian local turkey based on blood markers and rectal temperature

Nosike, R. J. Onunkwo, D.N. Ezike, J.C., Amaefule R.A. Amaraduruonye W., Nwakpu O. F. Obike O.M. Ibe, S.N. Oke, U.K.

pp 42-51

Abstract
Two hundred and ten (210) day-old F1 progeny obtained from parental population of 78 random-bred Nigerian local turkeys (Black, White and Spotted/Lavender) were used for blood markers and rectal temperature to characterize Nigerian local turkeys. Blood markers, namely; packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), total blood protein (TBP) and blood glucose (BGC) were determined and rectal temperature (RT) was measured. Rectal temperature (RT) was significantly different (p<0.05) at 9, 13, 17, 19 and 23 weeks of age (WOA) among the colour types. The PCV was significantly different (p<0.05) among the colour type at 7 and 11 WOA, with highest value in black and White at 7 WOA, and Black and Spotted at11 WOA, respectively. The Hb counts were significantly different (p<0.05) with highest value in black at 7 and 23 WOA and white at 7weeks old. The WBC was significantly (p<0.05) highest in spotted colour at 11, 13, 19 and 23 WOA. The RBC was significantly different (p<0.05) among the colour types at 7, 11 and 23 WOA with highest values in black at 7 and 23 week old, in spotted and white at week 11 and 7 WOA. However, BPT was significant difference (p<0.05) with highest values in spotted and white in week 7 and black at 23 week old. The BGC was significantly different (p<0.05) among the birds at 7, 11 and 23 weeks old, with highest values in black colour at 7 and 11WOA, and black and white colours at 23 WOA. Improvement for local turkey in Nigeria could be made using the markers RT, PCV, Hb, WBC and RBC for Marker-assisted selection. In view of the results obtained in this study, it is recommended that the black phenotype be selected by breeders to achieve improved production.

Keyword: Nigerian, local turkey, colour type, blood markers, rectal temperature

Nosike, R. J. Onunkwo, D.N. Ezike, J.C., Amaefule R.A. Amaraduruonye W., Nwakpu O. F. Obike O.M. Ibe, S.N. Oke, U.K.

  • Department of Animal Breeding and Physiology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria.
  • Department of Animal Nutrition and Forage science, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: donunkwo1@gmail.com

Target audience: Poultry farmers, animal breeders and animal physiologist.


Antioxidant status and serology of laying pullets fed diets supplemented with mistletoe leaf meal

*Jimoh O.A. Ihejirika U.G. Balogun A.S. Adelani S.A. Okanlawon O.O.

pp 52-60

Abstract
The study was conducted to examine the potential of African mistletoe (Viscum album L.) as alternative feed additives for laying pullets. Fresh African mistletoe leaf were harvested from cocoa trees and air dried to constant weight. The leaves were grounded and were designated as mistletoe leaf meal (MLM). Sixty (60) eighteen weeks old ISA Brown pullets were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments when egg production was 4% in a completely randomized design. The birds were fed layer ration and dietary mistletoe supplement as treatments T1 (basal diet + 0% MLM), T2 (basal diet + 2% MLM), T3 (basal diet + 4%MLM) and T4 (basal diet + 6%MLM) during eight week feeding trial. At the end of the feeding trial, blood was collected through the jugular vein into a sample bottle for serum oxidative status assay; malondialdehyde (mMDA/mgprotein), total antioxidant activity (mmol/litre), glutathione peroxidase (GPx, µgGSH/min/mgprotein), superoxide dismutase (SOD, U/min/mg protein) and catalase (nmH2O2/min/mg protein) and serum biochemical assay; total protein and its fractions, cholesterol and its fractions, alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST). The result obtained revealed that lipid peroxidation in laying pullets were significantly (p<0.05) lowered by mistletoe supplementation while total antioxidant activity of laying pullets significantly (p<0.05) increased with mistletoe inclusion. The result revealed that 6% mistletoe supplementation significantly (p<0.05) enhanced catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity. Pullets fed mistletoe leaf meal had significantly (p<0.05) lower serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein compared to the control. Serum triglyceride and high density lipoprotein were not significantly (p<0.05) influenced by mistletoe. The ALT and AST of birds fed mistletoe leaf meal compared favourably with the control. It can be concluded that mistletoe inclusion in laying pullets diet enhanced antioxidant profile, does not pose organ toxicity and tends to confer hypocholesterolemic response on pullets.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity; Serum cholesterol; Lipid peroxides; Mistletoe; Pullets

*Jimoh O.A. Ihejirika U.G. Balogun A.S. Adelani S.A. Okanlawon O.O.

  • Agricultural Technology Department, Federal Polytechnic, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State.
  • Animal Physiology unit, Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.
  • Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, Oyo State College of Agriculture, Igboora, Oyo State.

*Corresponding Author: abubakarjimoh2011@gmail.com, Tel: +2348059783712

Target Audience: Poultry farmers, Nutritionist and physiologist


Influence of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on histology, blood profile and internal organ characteristics of broilers

Amaduruonye, W. Ikwunze, K. Oguike, M.A Onunkwo, D.N.*

pp 61-71

Abstract
A study using ninety-nine day old Marshal Broiler chicks was conducted to investigate the effect of ginger root meal on the histology, blood profile and internal organ characteristics of broilers. The birds were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments replicated three times in a completely Randomized Design. Each dietary treatment consisted of 33 birds per treatment with 11 birds per replicate. Ginger root meals were supplemented at 0%, 1.5% and 3.0% representing Diet 1, Diet 2 and Diet 3 respectively. At the end of the experiment, three broilers from each replicate were sampled, slaughtered, its internal organs, tissues of the heart, liver, kidney and small intestine were collected and processed for histopathology. Blood samples for hematology and serum biochemistry were collected, analyzed and recorded. Data collected on different parameters were subjected to Analysis of Variance. Results showed that no significant differences (P>0.05) were observed on all the internal organs and on the hematological parameters. There were significant differences (P<0.05) on the serum biochemistry. The histopathology of the internal organs showed that addition of ginger root meal above 1.5% in poultry diets could be detrimental to some internal organs.

Keywords: Blood profile, Broilers, Ginger, Hematology, Histopathology, Organ morphology.

Amaduruonye, W. Ikwunze, K. Oguike, M.A Onunkwo, D.N.*

  • College of Animal Science and Animal Production
  • Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State

*Corresponding Author: donunkwo1@gmail.com


Egg quality parameters and blood biochemical profile of six strains of poultry under extensive management system in Nigerian savanna

Nuhu, B. T. Adelanwa, M. A. *Hassan, M. R. Duru, S.

pp 72-80

Abstract
Six different poultry strains (Indigenous chicken, Broiler, Turkey, Geese, Duck and Guinea fowl) were studied under extensive system of management to investigate the effect of rearing system on their egg quality and the blood biochemical profile, respectively. Birds used for the study were obtained from four different locations (Zangon Shanu, Bomo, Samaru and Kurmin Bomo) in Sabon Gari Local Government Area. Eighteen (18) birds were randomly selected from the flock with three birds (3) per strain as replicates. Three eggs were collected daily per replicate for the determination of external and internal egg quality parameters. Blood samples (2ml) were collected from the same birds at the end of the laying phase for the determination of blood biochemical profile, haematological parameters and cholesterol levels. Data collected was analyzed using the General Linear Model of the SAS (2002) Software. Significant means were separated using the Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT). Results obtained from the study showed that the geese had significant (P<0.05) better external and internal egg parameters for most of the parameters, while indigenous chicken and broiler had the least results for external and internal egg parameters, respectively. The results of haematological parameters showed that all the parameters measured were significantly (P<0.05) different amongst the strains. However, the monocytes, eosinophiles and bands were not significantly (P>0.05) different from each other. Hence, it was concluded that management system had effect on egg quality parameters and blood biochemical profile in poultry strains raised under extensive management system in Nigeria.

Keywords: Chicken, egg, indigenous, management, Nigeria, strain.

Nuhu, B. T. Adelanwa, M. A. *Hassan, M. R. Duru, S.

  • Department of Biology, School of Secondary Education Sciences, Federal College of Education, Zaria
  • Department of Botany, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
  • Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

*Corresponding Author: mrhassan@abu.edu.ng Tel: +2348062853385

Target audience: Smallholder poultry farmers, Poultry Scientists, Egg dealers, retailers and consumers and Extension agents.